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Timothy J. Brennan, M.D., Ph.D.

Professor


Contact Information
Job Description: Vice Chair, Research; Dr. Samir D. Gergis Professor; Interim Director, Pain Medicine

Email Me


Education
Graduate Education
  • University of Texas - San Antonio - Ph.D.
Medical School
  • University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center - M.D.
Residency
  • University of Virginia Health Sciences Center
Fellowship
  • University of Oklahoma Health Science Center
Research Interests
  • Neural mechanisms for post-operative pain
Awards
  • 2010 - American Pain Society Frederick W.L. Kerr Basic Science Research Award
  • 2003-2009 - Best Doctors in America
  • 2006 - Issuance of U.S. Patent No. 7,091,249. Drugs for Spinal Anesthesia
  • 1996 - Teacher of the Year Award – Anesthesia Residents
  • 1989 - Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society
Appointments
  • The University of Iowa College of Medicine 1993-present
Publications
  1. Bayman EO, Brennan TJ: Incidence and severity of chronic pain at 3 and 6 months after thoracotomy: meta-analysis. J Pain 2014 Jun; 15(9):887-97


  2. Kang S, Brennan TJ: Pain Models: Translational Relevance and Applications IASP Press


  3. Dalm BD, Brennan TJ, Elahi F, Howard MA, Reddy CG: Successful conservative management of an intrathecal catheter-associated inflammatory mass. Spine J 2013 Oct


  4. Mamet J, Klukinov M, Yaksh TL, Malkmus SA, Williams S, Harris S, Manning DC, Taylor BK, Donahue RR, Porreca F, Xie JY, Oyarzo J, Brennan TJ, Subieta A, Schmidt WK, Yeomans DC: Single intrathecal administration of the transcription factor decoy AYX1 prevents acute and chronic pain after incisional, inflammatory, or neuropathic injury. Pain 2013 Oct; 155(2):322-33


  5. Brennan TJ, Kang S: Is second pain worse than the first? Pain 2013 Oct; 155(1):2-3


  6. Kang S, Lee D, Theusch BE, Arpey CJ, Brennan TJ: Wound hypoxia in deep tissue after incision in rats. Wound Repair Regen 2013 Aug; 21(5):730-9


  7. Kido K, Gautam M, Benson CJ, Gu H, Brennan TJ: Effect of Deep Tissue Incision on pH Responses of Afferent Fibers and Dorsal Root Ganglia Innervating Muscle. Anesthesiology 2013 Jun; 119(5):1186-97


  8. Yalamuri SM, Brennan TJ, Spofford CM: Neuropeptide Y is analgesic in rats after plantar incision. Eur J Pharmacol 2013 Jan; 698(1-3):206-12


  9. Ueda K, Shields BE, Brennan TJ: Transesophageal echocardiography: a novel technique for guidance and placement of an epidural catheter in infants. Anesthesiology 2012 Nov; 118(1):219-22


  10. Flouty O, Oya H, Kawasaki H, Wilson S, Reddy CG, Jeffery ND, Brennan TJ, Gibson-Corley KN, Utz M, Gillies GT, Howard MA: A new device concept for directly modulating spinal cord pathways: initial in vivo experimental results. Physiol Meas 2012 Nov; 33(12):2003-15


  11. Arunakul P, Brennan TJ: Combined capsaicin and local anesthetic nerve blockade inhibits postoperative pain behaviors in rat plantar incision model Society for Neuroscience 2012


  12. Dudley-Cash A, Brennan TJ: The effect of low concentration capsaicin infiltration on acute pain from incision Society for Neuroscience 2012


  13. Brennan TJ, Arunakul P: Nerve blockade using capsaicin and local anesthetic reduces pain behaviors caused by plantar incision 14th World Congress on Pain 2012


  14. Spofford CM, Brennan TJ: Gene expression in skin, muscle, and dorsal root ganglion after plantar incision in the rat. Anesthesiology 2012 May; 117(1):161-72


  15. Kang S, Jang JH, Price MP, Gautam M, Benson CJ, Gong H, Welsh MJ, Brennan TJ: Simultaneous disruption of mouse ASIC1a, ASIC2 and ASIC3 genes enhances cutaneous mechanosensitivity. PLoS One 2012 Apr; 7(4):e35225


  16. Wilson S, Howard MA, Rossen JD, Brennan TJ, Dalm BD, Dahdaleh NS, Utz M, Gillies GT: Pulsatile spinal cord surrogate for intradural neuromodulation studies. J Med Eng Technol 2011 Dec; 36(1):22-5


  17. Howard MA III, Utz M, Brennan TJ, Dalm BD, Viljoen S, Kanwal JK, Gillies GT: Biophysical attributes of an in vitro spinal cord surrogate for use in developing an intradural neuromodulation system J Appl Phys 110:074701


  18. Howard III MA, Utz M, Brennan TJ, Dalm BD, Viljoen S, Jeffery ND, Gillies GT: Intradural approach to selective stimulation in the spinal cord for treatment of intractable pain: design principles and wireless protocol. J Appl Phy 110: 044702 (2011)


  19. Xu J, Brennan TJ: The pathophysiology of acute pain: animal models. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2011 Aug; 24(5):508-14


  20. Jang JH, Liang D, Kido K, Sun Y, Clark DJ, Brennan TJ: Increased local concentration of complement C5a contributes to incisional pain in mice. J Neuroinflammation 2011 Jul; 8:80


  21. Spofford CM, Mohan S, Kang S, Jang JH, Brennan TJ: Evaluation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in a rat model of postoperative pain. J Pain 2011 Jul; 12(7):819-32


  22. Manion SC, Brennan TJ: Thoracic epidural analgesia and acute pain management. Anesthesiology 2011 May; 115(1):181-8


  23. Brennan TJ: Pathophysiology of postoperative pain. Pain 2011 Jan; 152(3 Suppl):S33-40


  24. Wu C, Xu J, Kang S, Spofford CM, Brennan TJ: Animal models of postoperative pain. Animal Models of Pain. Ma C, Zhang JM, (eds.). Springer, p. 181-200, 2010


  25. Gu H, Brennan TJ: Skin plus deep tissue incision enhances dorsal horn neuron activity during rat plantar muscle contraction. Society for Neuroscience 2010


  26. Jang JH, Kido K, Brennan TJ: Activation and sensitivation of nociceptors by complement C5A in incised mouse skin Society for Neuroscience 2010


  27. Xu J, Gu H, Brennan TJ: Increased sensitivity of group III and group IV afferents from incised muscle in vitro. Pain 2010 Oct; 151(3):744-55


  28. Kang S, Lee D, Theusch B, Brennan TJ: Tissue hypoxia in subcutaneous and deep muscle tissues after incision in rats. 13th World Congress on Pain 2010


  29. Spofford C, Mohan S, Kang S, Jang JH, Brennan TJ: Characterization of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) after plantar incision. 13th World Congress on Pain 2010


  30. Xu J, Gu H, Brennan TJ: Sensitization of Group III and Group IV afferents from incised muscle in vitro. 13th World Congress on Pain 2010


  31. Pulley SC, Spofford CM, Brennan TJ: Continuous cervical paravertebral catheter knot. J Clin Anesth 2010 Mar; 22(2):135-8


  32. Jang JH, Clark JD, Li X, Yorek MS, Usachev YM, Brennan TJ: Nociceptive sensitization by complement C5a and C3a in mouse. Pain 2009 Dec; 148(2):343-52


  33. Xu J, Brennan TJ: Guarding pain and spontaneous activity of nociceptors after skin versus skin plus deep tissue incision. Anesthesiology 2009 Dec; 112(1):153-64


  34. Kang S, Wu C, Banik RK, Brennan TJ: Effect of capsaicin treatment on nociceptors in rat glabrous skin one day after plantar incision. Pain 2009 Dec; 148(1):128-40


  35. Borgeat A, Brennan TJ, Eisenach JC, Hemmings HC, Isono S, Kersten JR, Kochs E, Riou B, Warner DS: 2009 in Review: Advancing Medicine in Anesthesiology. Anesthesiology 2009 Nov 26


  36. Kumar AB, Brennan TJ: Pain assessment, sedation, and analgesic administration in the intensive care unit. Anesthesiology 2009 Nov; 111(6):1187-8


  37. Spofford CM, Ashmawi H, Subieta A, Buevich F, Moses A, Baker M, Brennan TJ: Ketoprofen produces modality-specific inhibition of pain behaviors in rats after plantar incision. Anesth Analg 2009 Nov; 109(6):1992-9


  38. Ashmawi H, Spofford C, Brennan TJ: P2X4 expression in rat skin and muscle after plantar incision. Society for Neuroscience 2009


  39. Gu H, Brennan TJ: Effect of muscle incision on dorsal horn neuron activity during muscle contraction. Society for Neuroscience 2009


  40. Jang JH, Kang S, Price M, Welsh M, Brennan TJ: Response of cutaneous mechanosensitive afferents to the combination of acid/lactate/ATP in ASIC triple KO mouse in vitro. Society for Neuroscience 2009


  41. Kang S, Lee D, Theusch B, Brennan TJ: Changes in tissue oxygen tension after incision in the rat. Society for Neuroscience 2009


  42. Mohan S, Spofford C, Brennan TJ: Role of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) and Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor (LIFR) in incisional pain. Society for Neuroscience 2009


  43. Xu J, Brennan TJ: Increased sensitivity of group III and group IV afferents from injured muscle in vitro. Society for Neuroscience 2009


  44. Shontz R, Karuparthy V, Temple R, Brennan TJ: Prevalence and risk factors predisposing to coagulopathy in patients receiving epidural analgesia for hepatic surgery. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2009 Jul; 34(4):308-11


  45. Udeh C, Brennan TJ: Perioperative Medicine in the United States. Perioperative Medizin. Epub 2009 Jun 18.


  46. Xu J, Brennan TJ: Comparison of skin incision vs. skin plus deep tissue incision on ongoing pain and spontaneous activity in dorsal horn neurons. Pain 2009 Jun; 144(3):329-39


  47. Kang S, Brennan TJ: Chemosensitivity and mechanosensitivity of nociceptors from incised rat hindpaw skin. Anesthesiology 2009 Jun; 111(1):155-64


  48. Hamalainen MM, Subieta A, Arpey C, Brennan TJ: Differential effect of capsaicin treatment on pain-related behaviors after plantar incision. J Pain 2009 Apr; 10(6):637-45


  49. Wu C, Erickson MA, Xu J, Wild KD, Brennan TJ: Expression profile of nerve growth factor after muscle incision in the rat. Anesthesiology 2008 Dec; 110(1):140-9


  50. Xu J, Richebe P, Brennan TJ: Separate groups of dorsal horn neurons transmit spontaneous activity and mechanosensitivity one day after plantar incision. Eur J Pain 2008 Dec; 13(8):820-8


  51. Eisenach JC, Borgeat A, Bosnjak ZJ, Brennan TJ, Kersten JR, Kochs E, Lerman J, Warner DS, Wiener-Kronish JP: 2008 in review: advancing medicine in anesthesiology. Anesthesiology 2008 Nov; 109(6):962-72


  52. Banik RK, Brennan TJ: Trpv1 mediates spontaneous firing and heat sensitization of cutaneous primary afferents after plantar incision. Pain 2008 Nov; 141(1-2):41-51


  53. Spofford C, Brennan TJ: Gene expression in rat skin, muscle, and dorsal root ganglion after plantar incision. Society for Neuroscience 2008


  54. Wu C, Erickson M, Xu J, Wild KD, Brennan TJ: Role of muscle NGF in incisional pain. Society for Neuroscience 2008


  55. Xu J, Brennan TJ: In vitro characterization of group III and group IV primary afferents from incised muscle. Society for Neuroscience 2008


  56. Xu L, Price M, Banik R, Subieta A, Welsh M, Brennan TJ: Mechanical responses of cutaneous afferents in ASIC triple KO mice. Society for Neuroscience 2008


  57. Kang S, Brennan TJ: In vitro acid sensitivity of nociceptors from incised rat hindpaw skin. Society for Neuroscience 2008


  58. Banik RK, Brennan TJ: Sensitization of primary afferents to mechanical and heat stimuli after incision in a novel in vitro mouse glabrous skin-nerve preparation. Pain 2008 Aug; 138(2):380-91


  59. Wu C, Gavva NR, Brennan TJ: Effect of AMG0347, a transient receptor potential type V1 receptor antagonist, and morphine on pain behavior after plantar incision. Anesthesiology 2008 May; 108(6):1100-8


  60. Gordon D, Inturrisi CE, Greensmith JE, Brennan TJ, Goble L, Kerns RD: Perioperative pain management in the opioid-tolerant individual. J Pain 2008 Mar; 9(5):383-7


  61. Eisenach JC, Borgeat A, Bosnjak ZJ, Brennan TJ, Kersten JR, Kochs EF, Wiener-Kronish JP: 2007 in review: a dozen steps forward in Anesthesiology. Anesthesiology 2007 Dec; 108(1):149-55


  62. Cameron DM, Brennan TJ, Gebhart GF: Hind paw incision in the rat produces long-lasting colon hypersensitivity. J Pain 2007 Dec; 9(3):246-53


  63. Wu C, Kang S, Brennan TJ: Differential effect of subcutaneous capsaicin injection on pain behaviors and afferent fiber immunoreactivity after plantar incision. Society for Neuroscience 2007


  64. Wu C, Erickson M, Xu J, Xu L, Brennan TJ: NGF expression in muscle after plantar incision in the rat. Society for Neuroscience 2007


  65. Xu J, Subieta A, Brennan TJ: In vivo dorsal horn neuron activity in skin versus skin plus deep tissue incision in the rat hindpaw. Society for Neuroscience 2007


  66. Xu J, Subieta A, Brennan TJ: In vivo nociceptor activity and pain behaviors in skin versus skin plus deep tissue incision in the rat hindpaw. Society for Neuroscience 2007


  67. Kang S, Banik R, Brennan TJ: Effect of subcutaneous capsaicin on mechanosensitive afferents in rat glabrous skin one day after plantar incision. Society for Neuroscience 2007


  68. Jin HC, Keller AJ, Jung JK, Subieta A, Brennan TJ: Epidural tezampanel, an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, produces postoperative analgesia in rats. Anesth Analg 2007 Sep; 105(4):1152-9, table of contents


  69. Eisenach JC, Brennan TJ: Anesthesiology and the press. Anesthesiology 2007 Jul; 107(1):8


  70. Wu C, Boustany L, Liang H, Brennan TJ: Nerve growth factor expression after plantar incision in the rat. Anesthesiology 2007 Jun; 107(1):128-35


  71. Pogatzki-Zahn EM, Zahn PK, Brennan TJ: Postoperative pain--clinical implications of basic research. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2007 Mar; 21(1):3-13


  72. Banik RK, Woo YC, Park SS, Brennan TJ: Strain and sex influence on pain sensitivity after plantar incision in the mouse. Anesthesiology 2006 Nov; 105(6):1246-53


  73. Lee HJ, Pogatzki-Zahn EM, Brennan TJ: The effect of the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist LY293558 in a rat model of postoperative pain. J Pain 2006 Oct; 7(10):768-77


  74. Kim TJ, Freml L, Park SS, Brennan TJ: Lactate concentrations in incisions indicate ischemic-like conditions may contribute to postoperative pain. J Pain 2006 Sep; 8(1):59-66


  75. Whyte DG, Brennan TJ, Johnson AK: Thermoregulatory behavior is disrupted in rats with lesions of the anteroventral third ventricular area (AV3V). Physiol Behav 2006 Mar 30; 87(3):493-9


  76. Jin H, Keller A, Jung J, Subieta A, Brennan TJ: Epidural NGX 424, an AMPA-Kainate Receptor Antagonist, Produces Analgesia in Rats after Plantar Incision American Society of Regional Anesthesiologists


  77. Brennan TJ, Kehlet H: Preventive analgesia to reduce wound hyperalgesia and persistent postsurgical pain: not an easy path. Anesthesiology 2005 Oct; 103(4):681-3


  78. Banik RK, Subieta AR, Wu C, Brennan TJ: Increased nerve growth factor after rat plantar incision contributes to guarding behavior and heat hyperalgesia. Pain 2005 Aug; 117(1-2):68-76


  79. Brennan TJ: Incisional sensitivity and pain measurements: dissecting mechanisms for postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 2005 Jul; 103(1):3-4


  80. Zahn PK, Pogatzki-Zahn EM, Brennan TJ: Spinal administration of MK-801 and NBQX demonstrates NMDA-independent dorsal horn sensitization in incisional pain. Pain 2005 Apr; 114(3):499-510


  81. Brennan TJ, Zahn PK, Pogatzki-Zahn EM: Mechanisms of incisional pain. Anesthesiol Clin North America 2005 Mar; 23(1):1-20


  82. Richebe P, Rathmell JP, Brennan TJ: Immediate early genes after pulsed radiofrequency treatment: neurobiology in need of clinical trials. Anesthesiology 2005 Jan; 102(1):1-3


  83. Page AJ, Brierley SM, Martin CM, Martinez-Salgado C, Wemmie JA, Brennan TJ, Symonds E, Omari T, Lewin GR, Welsh MJ, Blackshaw LA: The ion channel ASIC1 contributes to visceral but not cutaneous mechanoreceptor function. Gastroenterology 2004 Dec; 127(6):1739-47


  84. Banik RK, Brennan TJ: Spontaneous discharge and increased heat sensitivity of rat C-fiber nociceptors are present in vitro after plantar incision. Pain 2004 Oct; 112(1-2):204-13


  85. Leonard PA, Arunkumar R, Brennan TJ: Bradykinin antagonists have no analgesic effect on incisional pain. Anesth Analg 2004 Sep; 99(4):1166-72, table of contents


  86. Woo YC, Park SS, Subieta AR, Brennan TJ: Changes in tissue pH and temperature after incision indicate acidosis may contribute to postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 2004 Jul; 101(2):468-75


  87. Brennan TJ: A rat model of postoperative pain. Curr Protoc Pharmacol 2004 May; Chapter 5:Unit 5.34


  88. Zahn PK, Subieta A, Park SS, Brennan TJ: Effect of blockade of nerve growth factor and tumor necrosis factor on pain behaviors after plantar incision. J Pain 2004 Apr; 5(3):157-63


  89. Brennan TJ, Zahn PK: Effect of intrathecal ACEA-1021 in a rat model for postoperative pain. J Pain 2003 Nov; 1(4):279-84


  90. Pogatzki EM, Niemeier JS, Sorkin LS, Brennan TJ: Spinal glutamate receptor antagonists differentiate primary and secondary mechanical hyperalgesia caused by incision. Pain 2003 Sep; 105(1-2):97-107


  91. Berde CB, Brennan TJ, Raja SN: Opioids: more to learn, improvements to be made. Anesthesiology 2003 Jun; 98(6):1309-12


  92. Jarvis MF, Burgard EC, McGaraughty S, Honore P, Lynch K, Brennan TJ, Subieta A, Van Biesen T, Cartmell J, Bianchi B, Niforatos W, Kage K, Yu H, Mikusa J, Wismer CT, Zhu CZ, Chu K, Lee CH, Stewart AO, Polakowski J, Cox BF, Kowaluk E, Williams M, Sullivan J, Faltynek C: A-317491, a novel potent and selective non-nucleotide antagonist of P2X3 and P2X2/3 receptors, reduces chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002 Dec 24; 99(26):17179-84


  93. Zahn PK, Sluka KA, Brennan TJ: Excitatory amino acid release in the spinal cord caused by plantar incision in the rat. Pain 2002 Nov; 100(1-2):65-76


  94. Brennan TJ: Frontiers in translational research: the etiology of incisional and postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 2002 Sep; 97(3):535-7


  95. Zahn PK, Pogatzki EM, Brennan TJ: Mechanisms for pain caused by incisions. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2002 Sep-Oct; 27(5):514-6


  96. Pogatzki EM, Niemeier JS, Brennan TJ: Persistent secondary hyperalgesia after gastrocnemius incision in the rat. Eur J Pain 2002 Aug; 6(4):295-305


  97. Von Bergen NH, Subieta A, Brennan TJ: Effect of intrathecal non-NMDA EAA receptor antagonist LY293558 in rats: a new class of drugs for spinal anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2002 Jul; 97(1):177-82


  98. Pogatzki EM, Urban MO, Brennan TJ, Gebhart GF: Role of the rostral medial medulla in the development of primary and secondary hyperalgesia after incision in the rat. Anesthesiology 2002 May; 96(5):1153-60


  99. Pogatzki EM, Vandermeulen EP, Brennan TJ: Effect of plantar local anesthetic injection on dorsal horn neuron activity and pain behaviors caused by incision. Pain 2002 May; 97(1-2):151-61


  100. Pogatzki EM, Gebhart GF, Brennan TJ: Characterization of Adelta- and C-fibers innervating the plantar rat hindpaw one day after an incision. J Neurophysiol 2002 Feb; 87(2):721-31


  101. Hamalainen MM, Gebhart GF, Brennan TJ: Acute effect of an incision on mechanosensitive afferents in the plantar rat hindpaw. J Neurophysiol 2002 Feb; 87(2):712-20


  102. Price MP, McIlwrath SL, Xie J, Cheng C, Qiao J, Tarr DE, Sluka KA, Brennan TJ, Lewin GR, Welsh MJ: The DRASIC cation channel contributes to the detection of cutaneous touch and acid stimuli in mice. Neuron 2001 Dec 20; 32(6):1071-83


  103. Brennan TJ: Postoperative Models of Nociception. ILAR J 2001 Jun; 40(3):129-136


  104. Vandermeulen EP, Brennan TJ: Alterations in ascending dorsal horn neurons by a surgical incision in the rat foot. Anesthesiology 2000 Oct; 93(5):1294-302; discussion 6A


  105. Price MP, Lewin GR, McIlwrath SL, Cheng C, Xie J, Heppenstall PA, Stucky CL, Mannsfeldt AG, Brennan TJ, Drummond HA, Qiao J, Benson CJ, Tarr DE, Hrstka RF, Yang B, Williamson RA, Welsh MJ: The mammalian sodium channel BNC1 is required for normal touch sensation. Nature 2000 Oct 26; 407(6807):1007-11


  106. Pogatzki EM, Zahn PK, Brennan TJ: Effect of pretreatment with intrathecal excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists on the development of pain behavior caused by plantar incision. Anesthesiology 2000 Jul; 93(2):489-96


  107. Pogatzki EM, Zahn PK, Brennan TJ: Lumbar catheterization of the subarachnoid space with a 32-gauge polyurethane catheter in the rat. Eur J Pain 2000 Jun; 4(1):111-3


  108. Zahn PK, Brennan TJ: Incision-induced changes in receptive field properties of rat dorsal horn neurons. Anesthesiology 1999 Sep; 91(3):772-85


  109. Zahn PK, Brennan TJ: Primary and secondary hyperalgesia in a rat model for human postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 1999 Mar; 90(3):863-72


  110. Zahn PK, Brennan TJ: Intrathecal metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists do not decrease mechanical hyperalgesia in a rat model of postoperative pain. Anesth Analg 1998 Dec; 87(6):1354-9


  111. Zahn PK, Umali E, Brennan TJ: Intrathecal non-NMDA excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists inhibit pain behaviors in a rat model of postoperative pain. Pain 1998 Mar; 74(2-3):213-23


  112. Zahn PK, Brennan TJ: Lack of effect of intrathecally administered N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists in a rat model for postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 1998 Feb; 88(1):143-56


  113. Brennan TJ, Umali EF, Zahn PK: Comparison of pre- versus post-incision administration of intrathecal bupivacaine and intrathecal morphine in a rat model of postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 1998 Jan; 87(6):1517-28


  114. Wedel DJ, White PF, Brennan TJ, Sandler A: Workshop on how to perform clinical outcome studies. University of Munster, Munster, Germany, May 22-23, 1997. Anesthesiology 1997 Oct; 87(4):1021-2


  115. Zahn PK, Gysbers D, Brennan TJ: Effect of systemic and intrathecal morphine in a rat model of postoperative pain. Anesthesiology 1997 May; 86(5):1066-77


  116. Brennan TJ, Vandermeulen EP, Gebhart GF: Characterization of a rat model of incisional pain. Pain 1996 Mar; 64(3):493-501