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Michael M. Todd, M.D.

Professor


Contact Information
Job Description: Head
Education
Residency
  • University of Chicago Hospitals and Clinics
Medical School
  • University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine - M.D. (1975)
Residency
  • Massachusetts General Hospital (1979)
Fellowship
  • University of California, San Diego School of Medicine (1981)
Research Interests
  • Principal Investigator of the Intraoperative Hypothermia during Aneurysm Surgery Trial (IHAST). This is an NIH funded, prospective, randomized, multicenter, clinical trial intended to determine whether intraoperative hypothermia (target body
  • Co-Investigator in a series of clinical studies evaluating the movement of the cervical spine during endotracheal intubation, and examining the impact of various stabilization methods. This project is being performed in conjunction with a US Army grant to
  • Principal Investigator of funded projects to examine the effects of hemodilution and hypoxia on cerebral blood flow and on the relative activity of various endothelial flow mediators. Specifically, we are interested in roles of viscosity and oxygen conten
Appointments
  • University of California, San Diego School of Medicine 1981-1986
  • The University of Iowa College of Medicine 1986-present
  • Principal Investigator of the Intraoperative Hypothermia during Aneurysm Surgery Trial (IHAST). This is an NIH funded, prospective, randomized, multicenter, clinical trial intended to determine whether intraoperative hypothermia
Additional
Management of Anesthesiology, the largest journal in the specialty in the world. This involves the processing of approximately 1500 newly submitted manuscripts and the publication of over 3000 pages (and 3 million words) of material each year in the Journal. The journal staff incudes 4 full time employees and several part time assistants working at the University of Iowa, and numerous individuals at Lippincott Williams & Wilkins press in Philadelphia. Editorial reviews are provided by the Editor in Chief (Dr. Todd), 12 editors, 27 associate editors - along with over 600 invited reviewers from around the world. If you would like to find out more about Anesthesiology, please click here.
Publications
  1. Todd MM, Fleisher L: In reply. Anesthesiology 2014 Jul; 121(2):428-9


  2. Todd MM, Hindman BJ, King BJ: The implementation of quantitative electromyographic neuromuscular monitoring in an academic anesthesia department. Anesth Analg 2014 Jun; 119(2):323-31


  3. Jaja BN, Attalla D, Macdonald RL, Schweizer TA, Cusimano MD, Etminan N, Hanggi D, Hasan D, Johnston SC, Le Roux P, Lo B, Louffat-Olivares A, Mayer S, Molyneux A, Noble A, Quinn A, Schenk T, Spears J, Singh J, Todd M, Torner J, Tseng M, van den Bergh W, Vergouwen MD, Wong GK: The Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists (SAHIT) Repository: Advancing Clinical Research in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care 2014 May


  4. Hindman BJ, Santoni BG, Puttlitz CM, From RP, Todd MM: Intubation biomechanics: laryngoscope force and cervical spine motion during intubation with Macintosh and Airtraq laryngoscopes. Anesthesiology 2014 Apr; 121(2):260-71


  5. Raw RM, Todd MM, Hindman BJ, Mueller R: The Overpowered Mega-study Is a New Class of Study Needing a New Way of Being Reviewed. Anesthesiology 2014 Jan; 120(1):245-6


  6. Macdonald RL, Jaja B, Cusimano MD, Etminan N, Hanggi D, Hasan D, Ilodigwe D, Lantigua H, Le Roux P, Lo B, Louffat-Olivares A, Mayer S, Molyneux A, Quinn A, Schweizer TA, Schenk T, Spears J, Todd M, Torner J, Vergouwen MD, Wong GK, Singh J: SAHIT Investigators--on the outcome of some subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical trials. Transl Stroke Res 2013 Dec; 4(3):286-96


  7. Todd MM, Fleisher LA: Avoiding professional extinction. Anesthesiology 2013 Nov; 120(1):2-3


  8. Block RI, Thomas JJ, Bayman EO, Choi JY, Kimble KK, Todd MM: In reply. Anesthesiology 2013 Jul; 119(1):234-6


  9. Hindman BJ, Dexter F, Todd MM: Research, education, and nonclinical service productivity of new junior anesthesia faculty during a 2-year faculty development program. Anesth Analg 2013 Jun; 117(1):194-204


  10. Todd MM, Bayman EO: Fiberoptic versus videolaryngoscopic management of the difficult airway: problems with postrandomization patient exclusion. Anesthesiology 2013 Jan; 118(2):460


  11. Bayman EO, Chaloner KM, Hindman BJ, Todd MM: Bayesian methods to determine performance differences and to quantify variability among centers in multi-center trials: the IHAST trial. BMC Med Res Methodol 2013 Jan; 13:5


  12. Todd MM: Hyperosmolar Therapy and the Brain: A Hundred Years of Hard-earned Lessons. Anesthesiology 2013 Jan; 118(4):777-9


  13. Macdonald RL, Cusimano MD, Etminan N, Hanggi D, Hasan D, Ilodigwe D, Jaja B, Lantigua H, Le Roux P, Lo B, Louffat-Olivares A, Mayer S, Molyneux A, Quinn A, Schweizer TA, Schenk T, Spears J, Todd M, Torner J, Vergouwen MD, Wong GK: Subarachnoid Hemorrhage International Trialists data repository (SAHIT). World Neurosurg 2013 Jan; 79(3-4):418-22


  14. Jaja BN, Cusimano MD, Etminan N, Hanggi D, Hasan D, Ilodigwe D, Lantigua H, Le Roux P, Lo B, Louffat-Olivares A, Mayer S, Molyneux A, Quinn A, Schweizer TA, Schenk T, Spears J, Todd M, Torner J, Vergouwen MD, Wong GK, Singh J, Macdonald RL: Clinical prediction models for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review. Neurocrit Care 2012 Nov; 18(1):143-53


  15. Todd MM: Some historical notes on hyperosmolar therapy. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2012 Oct; 25(1):86


  16. Todd MM: Outcomes after neuroanesthesia and neurosurgery: what makes a difference. Anesthesiol Clin 2012 Aug; 30(2):399-408


  17. Lee LA, Roth S, Todd MM, Posner KL, Polissar NL, Neradilek MB, Newman NJ, Caplan RA, Cheney FW, Domino KB: In Reply. Anesthesiology 2012 Jul; 117(2):434-436


  18. Block RI, Thomas JJ, Bayman EO, Choi JY, Kimble KK, Todd MM: Are anesthesia and surgery during infancy associated with altered academic performance during childhood? Anesthesiology 2012 Jul; 117(3):494-503


  19. Marian AA, Dexter F, Tucker P, Todd MM: Comparison of alphabetical versus categorical display format for medication order entry in a simulated touch screen anesthesia information management system: an experiment in clinician-computer interaction in anesthesia. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2012 May; 12:46


  20. Lee LA, Roth S, Todd MM, Posner KL, Polissar NL, Neradilek MB, Torner J, Newman NJ, Domino KB, Lauer KK, Budithi R, Gollapudy S, Pajewski TN, Scalzo DC, Avitsian R, Brown MJ, Buenvenida S, Mashour GA, Moore LE, Samra SK, Lieberman J, Lane RK, Ramani R, Wagner J, Tempelhoff R, Monsey CM, Robicsek SA, Vu MM, Weeks J, et. al.: Risk Factors Associated with Ischemic Optic Neuropathy after Spinal Fusion Surgery. Anesthesiology 2011 Dec; 116(1):15-24


  21. Todd MM: Another intriguing application of hypothermia: and some words of caution. Anesthesiology 2011 Dec; 116(2):246-7


  22. Thomas JJ, Crosby G, Drummond JC, Todd MM: Anesthetic neurotoxicity: a difficult dragon to slay. Anesth Analg 2011 Oct; 113(5):969-71


  23. Todd MM, Smith TC: Intradepartmental Communications and Data Management in the Digital Age American Society of Anesthesiologists, 2011


  24. Marian A, Dexter F, Todd MM, Tucker P: Comparison of alphabetical versus categorical display format for medication order entry in a simulated anesthesia information management system International Anesthesia Research Society 2011


  25. Bayman EO, Chaloner K, Hindman BJ, Todd MM: No Large Differences Among Centers in a Multi-Center Neurosurgical Clinical Trial Society for Clinical Trials


  26. Marian A, Todd MM, Scamman FL, Anderson M, Herzig E: Successful use of a test system (EPIC POC) for achieving training and competence of end users before going live with electronic anesthesia records International Anesthesia Research Society 2011


  27. Marian A, Scamman FL, Todd MM: Use of capsule technology's Neuron® to interface wirelessly to the EPIC™ electronic anesthesia records International Anesthesia Research Society 2011


  28. Hindman BJ, Palecek JP, Posner KL, Traynelis VC, Lee LA, Sawin PD, Tredway TL, Todd MM, Domino KB: Cervical spinal cord, root, and bony spine injuries: a closed claims analysis. Anesthesiology 2011 Feb; 114(4):782-95


  29. Mahaney KB, Todd MM, Torner JC: Variation of patient characteristics, management, and outcome with timing of surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. J Neurosurg 2011 Jan; 114(4):1045-53


  30. Marian A, Dexter F, Todd MM, Tucker P, Scamman FL: Comparison of alphabetical versus categorical arrangement of medications for order entry in an electronic anesthesia record system. Society for Technology in Anesthesia 2011


  31. Marian A, Scamman FL, Todd MM: Downtime situations and autovalidation of cached device data in a modern electronic anesthesia record. Society for Technology in Anesthesia 2011


  32. Marian A, Todd MM, Scamman FL, Anderson M: Standardization of software levels, Datex record interface levels and outputs interface levels of Datex-Ohmeda S/5™ monitors for implementing electronic anesthesia records and its cost implications. Society for Technology in Anesthesia 2011


  33. Marian A, Todd MM, Scamman FL, Anderson M, Gillet A, Wendel K: Use of capsule technology's Neuron® to interface wirelessly to the EPIC™ intraoperative anesthesia module. Society for Technology in Anesthesia 2011


  34. Marian A, Todd MM, Scamman FL, Gillet A, Hansohn T, Leonard P, Willemsen-Dunlap A, Cutkomp J: Use of a human patient simulation center to design and test an electronic anesthesia record. Society for Technology in Anesthesia 2011


  35. Marian A, Dexter F, Todd MM, Tucker P, Scamman FL: Use of a tablet computer device, the Apple iPad®, in the designing of order entry screen for medication for an electronic anesthesia record. Society for Technology in Anesthesia 2011


  36. Marian A, Todd MM, Scamman FL, Hegland B, Hansohn T, Wendel K: Successful use of a test system (EPIC POC) for achieving training and competence of end users before going live with electronic anesthesia records. Society for Technology in Anesthesia 2011


  37. Hindman B, Posner KL, Todd MM, Lee LA, Domino KB: Cervical cord, root, and spine injury: A closed claims analysis. American Society of Anesthesiologists 2010


  38. Dexter F, Wachtel RE, Epstein RH, Ledolter J, Todd MM: Analysis of operating room allocations to optimize scheduling of specialty rotations for anesthesia trainees. Anesth Analg 2010 Jun; 111(2):520-4


  39. Nguyen HP, Zaroff JG, Bayman EO, Gelb AW, Todd MM, Hindman BJ: Perioperative hypothermia (33 degrees C) does not increase the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients undergoing cerebral aneurysm surgery: findings from the Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial. Anesthesiology 2010 Jun; 113(2):327-42


  40. Thomas JJ, Choi JY, Bayman EO, Kimble K, Todd MM, Block R: Does anesthesia exposure in infancy affect academic performance in childhood? International Anesthesia Research Society 2010


  41. Kaneda K, Baker MT, Han TH, Weeks JB, Todd MM: Pharmacokinetic characteristics of bolus-administered mannitol in patients undergoing elective craniotomy. J Clin Pharmacol 2010 Jan; 50(5):536-43


  42. Hindman BJ, Bayman EO, Pfisterer WK, Torner JC, Todd MM: No association between intraoperative hypothermia or supplemental protective drug and neurologic outcomes in patients undergoing temporary clipping during cerebral aneurysm surgery: findings from the Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysm Surgery Trial. Anesthesiology 2009 Dec; 112(1):86-101


  43. Yamashita S, Kaneda K, Han T, Weeks J, Baker M, Todd MM: Pharmacokinetic characteristics of bolus administered mannitol in patients undergoing elective craniotomy. American Society of Anesthesiologists 2009


  44. Yamashita S, Kaneda K, Han T, Todd MM: Physiology based pharmacokinetic and hydrodynamic modeling of serum osmolality after single bolus hyperosmotic agents: 20% mannitol vs. 3% hypertonic saline. Society for Neuroscience in Anesthesiology and Critical Care 2009


  45. Todd MM, Hindman BJ, Clarke WR, Torner JC, Weeks JB, Bayman EO, Shi Q, Spofford CM: Perioperative fever and outcome in surgical patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 2009 May; 64(5):897-908; discussion 908


  46. Coghlan LA, Hindman BJ, Bayman EO, Banki NM, Gelb AW, Todd MM, Zaroff JG: Independent Associations Between Electrocardiographic Abnormalities and Outcomes in Patients With Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Findings From the Intraoperative Hypothermia Aneurysm Surgery Trial. Stroke. 2009 Feb;40(2):412-8. Epub 2008 Dec 18.


  47. Santoni BG, Hindman BJ, Puttlitz CM, Weeks JB, Johnson N, Maktabi MA, Todd MM: Manual In-line Stabilization Increases Pressures Applied by the Laryngoscope Blade during Direct Laryngoscopy and Orotracheal Intubation. Anesthesiology 2009 Jan; 110(1):24-31


  48. Pasternak JJ, McGregor DG, Schroeder DR, Lanier WL, Shi Q, Hindman BJ, Clarke WR, Torner JC, Weeks JB, Todd MM: Hyperglycemia in patients undergoing cerebral aneurysm surgery: its association with long-term gross neurologic and neuropsychological function. Mayo Clin Proc 2008 Apr; 83(4):406-417


  49. McGregor DG, Lanier WL, Pasternak JJ, Rusy DA, Hogan K, Samra S, Hindman B, Todd MM, Schroeder DR, Bayman EO, Clarke W, Torner J, Weeks J: Effect of nitrous oxide on neurologic and neuropsychological function after intracranial aneurysm surgery. Anesthesiology 2008 Mar; 108(4):568-79


  50. LeGrand SA, Hindman BJ, Dexter F, Weeks JB, Todd MM: Craniocervical motion during direct laryngoscopy and orotracheal intubation with the Macintosh and Miller blades: an in vivo cinefluoroscopic study. Anesthesiology 2007 Nov; 107(6):884-91


  51. Hata JS, Shelsky CR, Hindman BJ, Smith TC, Simmons JS, Todd MM: A prospective, observational clinical trial of fever reduction to reduce systemic oxygen consumption in the setting of acute brain injury. Neurocrit Care 2007 Nov; 9(1):37-44


  52. Todd MM: Recapturing the Past-or Welcome (Again) to the 21st Century. Anesthesiology 2007 Oct; 107(4):523-4


  53. LeGrand SA, Hindman BJ, Dexter F, Moss LG, Todd MM: Reliability of a telephone-based Glasgow Outcome Scale assessment using a structured interview in a heterogenous population of patients and examiners. J Neurotrauma 2007 Sep; 24(9):1437-46


  54. Leira EC, Davis PH, Martin CO, Torner JC, Yoo B, Weeks JB, Hindman BJ, Todd MM: Improving prediction of outcome in "good grade" subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery 2007 Sep; 61(3):470-3; discussion 473-4


  55. Palecek J, Hindman B, Todd MM: Cervical spinal cord injury in anesthesia practice-An ASA closed claims anaylsis (a pilot study). Midwest Anesthesia Residents Conference 2007


  56. Samra SK, Giordani B, Caveney AF, Clarke WR, Scott PA, Anderson S, Thompson BG, Todd MM: Recovery of Cognitive Function After Surgery for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Stroke 2007 Jun;38(6):1864-72. Epub 2007 Apr 12


  57. Maze M, Todd MM: Special Issue on Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction: Selected Reports from the Journal-sponsored Symposium. Anesthesiology 2007 Mar; 106(3):418-420


  58. Todd MM: The Best Years of My Life. Anesthesiology 2007 Jan; 106(1):1-2


  59. Todd MM, Cutkomp J, Brian JE: Influence of mannitol and furosemide, alone and in combination, on brain water content after fluid percussion injury. Anesthesiology 2006 Nov; 105(6):1176-81


  60. Anderson SW, Todd MM, Hindman BJ, Clarke WR, Torner JC, Tranel D, Yoo B, Weeks J, Manzel KW, Samra S: Effects of intraoperative hypothermia on neuropsychological outcomes after intracranial aneurysm surgery. Ann Neurol 2006 Nov; 60(5):518-27


  61. Laur J, Yoo B, Spofford C, Weeks J, Hindman B, Todd MM: A Bayesian network model to predict fever following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Midwest Anesthesia Residents Conference 2006


  62. Spofford C, Yoo B, Laur J, Weeks J, Hindman B, Todd MM: Fever is associated with adverse outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Midwest Anesthesia Residents Conference 2006


  63. Thomas JJ, Choi JY, Bayman EO, Kimble K, Todd MM, Block R: Intraoperative Torsades de Pointes?--Droperidol, sevoflurane,... Midwest Anesthesia Residents Conference 2006


  64. Hata T, Todd MM: Cervical spine considerations when anesthetizing patients with Down syndrome. Anesthesiology 2005 Feb; 102(3):680-5


  65. Todd MM, Hindman BJ, Clarke WR, Torner JC: Mild intraoperative hypothermia during surgery for intracranial aneurysm. N Engl J Med 2005 Jan; 352(2):135-45


  66. Todd MM: Anesthetic Neurotoxicity: The Collision between Laboratory Neuroscience and Clinical Medicine. Anesthesiology 2004 Aug; 101(2):272-3


  67. Thenuwara K, Todd MM, Brian JE: Effect of mannitol and furosemide on plasma osmolality and brain water. Anesthesiology 2002 Jan; 96(2):416-21


  68. Todd MM, Traynelis VC: Experimental Cervical Spine Injury and Airway Management Methods. Anesth Analg 2001 Sep; 93(3):799-801


  69. Lennarson PJ, Smith DW, Sawin PD, Todd MM, Sato Y, Traynelis VC: Cervical spinal motion during intubation: efficacy of stabilization maneuvers in the setting of complete segmental instability. J Neurosurg 2001 Apr; 94(2 Suppl):265-70


  70. Tomiyama Y, Brian JE, Todd MM: Plasma viscosity and cerebral blood flow. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2000 Sep; 279(4):H1949-54


  71. Ghoneim MM, Block RI, Dhanaraj VJ, Todd MM, Choi WW, Brown CK: Auditory evoked responses and learning and awareness during general anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2000 Mar; 44(2):133-43


  72. Tomiyama Y, Brian JE, Todd MM: Cerebral blood flow during hemodilution and hypoxia in rats : role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. Stroke 1999 Sep; 30(9):1942-7; discussion 1947-8


  73. Todd MM, Brown DL: Regional anesthesia and postoperative pain management: long-term benefits from a short-term intervention. Anesthesiology 1999 Jul; 91(1):1-2


  74. Tomiyama Y, Jansen K, Brian JE, Todd MM: Hemodilution, cerebral O2 delivery, and cerebral blood flow: a study using hyperbaric oxygenation. Am J Physiol 1999 Apr; 276(4 Pt 2):H1190-6


  75. Hindman BJ, Todd MM, Gelb AW, Loftus CM, Craen RA, Schubert A, Mahla ME, Torner JC: Mild hypothermia as a protective therapy during intracranial aneurysm surgery: a randomized prospective pilot trial. Neurosurgery 1999 Jan; 44(1):23-32; discussion 32-3


  76. Todd MM, Farrell S, Wu B: Cerebral blood flow during hypoxemia and hemodilution in rabbits: different roles for nitric oxide? J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1997 Dec; 17(12):1319-25


  77. Todd MM, Weeks J: Comparative effects of propofol, pentobarbital, and isoflurane on cerebral blood flow and blood volume. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1996 Oct; 8(4):296-303


  78. Reasoner DK, Dexter F, Hindman BJ, Subieta A, Todd MM: Somatosensory evoked potentials correlate with neurological outcome in rabbits undergoing cerebral air embolism. Stroke 1996 Oct; 27(10):1859-64


  79. Nakashima K, Todd MM: Effects of hypothermia on the rate of excitatory amino acid release after ischemic depolarization. Stroke 1996 May; 27(5):913-8


  80. Maktabi MA, Todd MM, Stachovic G: Angiotensin II contributes to cerebral vasodilatation during hypoxia in the rabbit. Stroke 1995 Oct; 26(10):1871-6


  81. Verhaegen M, Iaizzo PA, Todd MM: A comparison of the effects of hypothermia, pentobarbital, and isoflurane on cerebral energy stores at the time of ischemic depolarization. Anesthesiology 1995 May; 82(5):1209-15


  82. Nakashima K, Todd MM, Warner DS: The relation between cerebral metabolic rate and ischemic depolarization. A comparison of the effects of hypothermia, pentobarbital, and isoflurane. Anesthesiology 1995 May; 82(5):1199-208


  83. Reasoner DK, Warner DS, Todd MM, Hunt SW, Kirchner J: A comparison of anesthetic techniques for awake intubation in neurosurgical patients. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1995 Apr; 7(2):94-9


  84. Warner DS, Todd MM, Dexter F, Ludwig P, McAllister AM: Temporal thresholds for hyperglycemia-augmented ischemic brain damage in rats. Stroke 1995 Apr; 26(4):655-60


  85. Warner DS, Todd MM, Dexter F, Ludwig P, McAllister AM: Temporal thresholds for hyperglycemia-augmented ischemic brain damage in rats. Stroke 1995 Apr; 26(4):655-60


  86. Jensen NF, Todd MM, Block RI, Hegtvedt RL, McCulloch TM: The efficacy of routine central venous monitoring in major head and neck surgery: a retrospective review. J Clin Anesth 1995 Mar; 7(2):119-25


  87. Todd MM, Wu B, Maktabi M, Hindman BJ, Warner DS: Cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery during hypoxemia and hemodilution: role of arterial oxygen content. Am J Physiol 1994 Nov; 267(5 Pt 2):H2025-31


  88. Martin H, Warner DS, Todd MM: Effects of glycine receptor antagonism on spreading depression in the rat. Neurosci Lett 1994 Oct; 180(2):285-9


  89. Verhaegen M, Todd MM, Warner DS: Ischemic depolarization during halothane-nitrous oxide and isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. An examination of cerebral blood flow threshold and times to depolarization. Anesthesiology 1994 Oct; 81(4):965-73


  90. McFarlane C, Warner DS, Dexter F, Todd MM: Glutamatergic antagonism: effects on lidocaine-induced seizures in the rat. Anesth Analg 1994 Oct; 79(4):701-5


  91. McFarlane C, Warner DS, Dexter F, Todd MM: Glutamatergic antagonism: effects on lidocaine-induced seizures in the rat. Anesth Analg 1994 Oct; 79(4):701-5


  92. Reasoner DK, Todd MM, Scamman FL, Warner DS: The incidence of pneumocephalus after supratentorial craniotomy. Observations on the disappearance of intracranial air. Anesthesiology 1994 May; 80(5):1008-12


  93. Todd MM, Wu B, Warner DS, Maktabi M: The dose-related effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on cerebral blood flow during isoflurane and pentobarbital anesthesia. Anesthesiology 1994 May; 80(5):1128-36


  94. Todd MM, Wu B, Warner DS: The hemispheric cerebrovascular response to hemodilution is attenuated by a focal cryogenic brain injury. J Neurotrauma 1994 Apr; 11(2):149-60


  95. Hansen TD, Warner DS, Traynelis VC, Todd MM: Plasma osmolality and brain water content in a rat glioma model. Neurosurgery 1994 Mar; 34(3):505-11; discussion 511


  96. Todd MM: Cerebral blood flow during isovolemic hemodilution: mechanistic observations. Adv Pharmacol 1994 Jan; 31:595-605


  97. Warner DS, McFarlane C, Todd MM, Ludwig P, McAllister AM: Sevoflurane and halothane reduce focal ischemic brain damage in the rat. Possible influence on thermoregulation. Anesthesiology 1993 Nov; 79(5):985-92


  98. Hansen TD, Warner DS, Traynelis VC, Roach RM, Todd MM: Cerebral blood flow in a rat glioma model during halothane anesthesia. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1993 Jul; 5(3):187-93


  99. Todd MM, Weeks JB, Warner DS: A focal cryogenic brain lesion does not reduce the minimum alveolar concentration for halothane in rats. Anesthesiology 1993 Jul; 79(1):139-43


  100. Todd MM, Warner DS, Sokoll MD, Maktabi MA, Hindman BJ, Scamman FL, Kirschner J: A prospective, comparative trial of three anesthetics for elective supratentorial craniotomy. Propofol/fentanyl, isoflurane/nitrous oxide, and fentanyl/nitrous oxide. Anesthesiology 1993 Jun; 78(6):1005-20


  101. Todd MM, Weeks JB, Warner DS: The influence of intravascular volume expansion on cerebral blood flow and blood volume in normal rats. Anesthesiology 1993 May; 78(5):945-53


  102. Verhaegen MJ, Todd MM, Hindman BJ, Warner DS: Cerebral autoregulation during moderate hypothermia in rats. Stroke 1993 Mar; 24(3):407-14


  103. Todd MM, Weeks JB, Warner DS: Microwave fixation for the determination of cerebral blood volume in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1993 Mar; 13(2):328-36


  104. Maktabi MA, Elbokl FF, Faraci FM, Todd MM: Halothane decreases the rate of production of cerebrospinal fluid. Possible role of vasopressin V1 receptors. Anesthesiology 1993 Jan; 78(1):72-82


  105. Warner DS, Gionet TX, Todd MM, McAllister AM: Insulin-induced normoglycemia improves ischemic outcome in hyperglycemic rats. Stroke 1992 Dec; 23(12):1775-80; discussion 1781


  106. Spiegel DA, Dexter F, Warner DS, Baker MT, Todd MM: Central nervous system toxicity of local anesthetic mixtures in the rat. Anesth Analg 1992 Dec; 75(6):922-8


  107. Hindman BJ, Dexter F, Cutkomp J, Smith T, Todd MM, Tinker JH: Brain blood flow and metabolism do not decrease at stable brain temperature during cardiopulmonary bypass in rabbits. Anesthesiology 1992 Aug; 77(2):342-50


  108. Gionet TX, Warner DS, Verhaegen M, Thomas JD, Todd MM: Effects of intra-ischemic blood pressure on outcome from 2-vessel occlusion forebrain ischemia in the rat. Brain Res 1992 Jul; 586(2):188-94


  109. Verhaegen M, Todd MM, Warner DS: The influence of different concentrations of volatile anesthetics on the threshold for cortical spreading depression in rats. Brain Res 1992 May; 581(1):153-5


  110. Verhaegen MJ, Todd MM, Warner DS: A comparison of cerebral ischemic flow thresholds during halothane/N2O and isoflurane/N2O anesthesia in rats. Anesthesiology 1992 May; 76(5):743-54


  111. Ramani R, Todd MM, Warner DS: A dose-response study of the influence of propofol on cerebral blood flow, metabolism and the electroencephalogram in the rabbit. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1992 Apr; 4(2):110-9


  112. Verhaegen MJ, Todd MM, Warner DS, James B, Weeks JB: The role of electrode size on the incidence of spreading depression and on cortical cerebral blood flow as measured by H2 clearance. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1992 Mar; 12(2):230-7


  113. Bucklin BA, Warner DS, Choi WW, Todd MM, Chestnut DH: Pregnancy does not alter the threshold for lidocaine-induced seizures in the rat. Anesth Analg 1992 Jan; 74(1):57-61


  114. Hindman BJ, Funatsu N, Harrington J, Cutkomp J, Dexter F, Todd MM, Tinker JH: Cerebral blood flow response to PaCO2 during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in rabbits. Anesthesiology 1991 Oct; 75(4):662-8


  115. Warner DS, Zhou JG, Ramani R, Todd MM: Reversible focal ischemia in the rat: effects of halothane, isoflurane, and methohexital anesthesia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1991 Sep; 11(5):794-802


  116. Hindman BJ, Funatsu N, Harrington J, Cutkomp J, Miller T, Todd MM, Tinker JH: Differences in cerebral blood flow between alpha-stat and pH-stat management are eliminated during periods of decreased systemic flow and pressure. A study during cardiopulmonary bypass in rabbits. Anesthesiology 1991 Jun; 74(6):1096-102


  117. Ramani R, Todd MM, Warner DS: The influence of a cryogenic brain injury on the cerebrovascular response to isoflurane in the rabbit. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1991 May; 11(3):388-97


  118. Choi WW, Warner DS, Monahan DJ, Todd MM: Effects of acute hypermagnesemia on the threshold for lidocaine-induced seizures in the rat. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991 Feb; 164(2):693-7


  119. Scamman FL, Todd MM, Smith T, and Scamman BJ: Computer acquisition of commonly available operating room data. Journal of Clinical Monitoring, 1 (1991), 86


  120. Warner DS, Reasoner DK, Todd MM, McAllister A: Secondary hypotensive insults in a rat forebrain ischemia model. Brain Res 1990 Dec; 536(1-2):176-82


  121. Hindman BJ, Funatsu N, Cheng DC, Bolles R, Todd MM, Tinker JH: Differential effect of oncotic pressure on cerebral and extracerebral water content during cardiopulmonary bypass in rabbits. Anesthesiology 1990 Nov; 73(5):951-7


  122. From RP, Warner DS, Todd MM, Sokoll MD: Anesthesia for craniotomy: a double-blind comparison of alfentanil, fentanyl, and sufentanil. Anesthesiology 1990 Nov; 73(5):896-904


  123. Warner DS, Zhou JG, Ramani R, Todd MM, McAllister A: Nitrous oxide does not alter infarct volume in rats undergoing reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion. Anesthesiology 1990 Oct; 73(4):686-93


  124. Weeks JB, Todd MM, Warner DS, Katz J: The influence of halothane, isoflurane, and pentobarbital on cerebral plasma volume in hypocapnic and normocapnic rats. Anesthesiology 1990 Sep; 73(3):461-6


  125. Reasoner DK, Warner DS, Todd MM, McAllister A: Effects of nitrous oxide on cerebral metabolic rate in rats anaesthetized with isoflurane. Br J Anaesth 1990 Aug; 65(2):210-5


  126. Kaieda R, Todd MM, Weeks JB, Warner DS: A comparison of the effects of halothane, isoflurane, and pentobarbital anesthesia on intracranial pressure and cerebral edema formation following brain injury in rabbits. Anesthesiology 1989 Oct; 71(4):571-9


  127. Kaieda R, Todd MM, Warner DS: Prolonged reduction in colloid oncotic pressure does not increase brain edema following cryogenic injury in rabbits. Anesthesiology 1989 Oct; 71(4):554-60


  128. Hansen TD, Warner DS, Todd MM, Vust LJ: Effects of nitrous oxide and volatile anaesthetics on cerebral blood flow. Br J Anaesth 1989 Sep; 63(3):290-5


  129. Warner DS, Hansen TD, Vust L, Todd MM: Distribution of cerebral blood flow during deep isoflurane vs. pentobarbital anesthesia in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1989 Sep; 1(3):219-26


  130. Zhou JG, Todd MM, Warner DS, Loftus CM: EEG changes during carotid occlusion and hypotension in the rat: the effects of nitrous oxide. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1989 Jun; 1(2):103-9


  131. Hansen TD, Warner DS, Todd MM, Vust LJ: The role of cerebral metabolism in determining the local cerebral blood flow effects of volatile anesthetics: evidence for persistent flow-metabolism coupling. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1989 Jun; 9(3):323-8


  132. Kaieda R, Todd MM, Cook LN, Warner DS: Acute effects of changing plasma osmolality and colloid oncotic pressure on the formation of brain edema after cryogenic injury. Neurosurgery 1989 May; 24(5):671-8


  133. Blair JL, Warner DS, Todd MM: Effects of elevated plasma magnesium versus calcium on cerebral ischemic injury in rats. Stroke 1989 Apr; 20(4):507-12


  134. Kaieda R, Todd MM, Warner DS: The effects of anesthetics and PaCO2 on the cerebrovascular, metabolic, and electroencephalographic responses to nitrous oxide in the rabbit. Anesth Analg 1989 Feb; 68(2):135-43


  135. Hansen TD, Warner DS, Todd MM, Vust LJ, Trawick DC: Distribution of cerebral blood flow during halothane versus isoflurane anesthesia in rats. Anesthesiology 1988 Sep; 69(3):332-7